Rabbit Anti-Seneca valley Virus VP1
Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a recently-identified important pathogen that is closely related to idiopathic vesicular disease in swine. Infection of SVV has been shown to induce a variety of cellular factors and their activations are essential for viral replication, but whether heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) involved in SVV replication is unknown. The cytoplasmic redistribution of hnRNP A1 is considered to play an important role in the virus life cycle.
Here, we demonstrated that SVV infection can promote redistribution of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein hnRNP A1 to the cytoplasm from the nucleus, whereas hnRNP A1 remained mainly in the nucleus of mock-infected cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the gene encoding hnRNP A1 attenuated viral replication as evidenced by decreased viral protein expression and virus production, whereas its overexpression enhanced replication.
Moreover, infection with SVV induced the degradation of hnRNP A1, and viral 3 C protease (3 Cpro) was found to be responsible for its degradation and translocation. Further studies demonstrated that 3 Cpro induced hnRNP A1 degradation through its protease activity, via the proteasome pathway. This degradation could be attenuated by a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) and inactivation of the conserved catalytic box in 3 C.
Taken together, these results presented here reveal that SVV 3 C protease targets cellular hnRNP A1 for its degradation and translocation, which is utilized by SVV to aid viral replication, thereby highlighting the control potential of strategies for infection of SVV.